Excelente listado de los comandos GNU/Linux mas usados.

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Información del sistema

  1. arch → mostrar la arquitectura de la máquina (1).
  2. uname -m → mostrar la arquitectura de la máquina (2).
  3. uname -r → mostrar la versión del kernel usado.
  4. uname -a → mostrar la información completa.
  5. lsb_release -a → mostrar la información completa de la distribución.
  6. cat /etc/issue → mostrar el nombre de la distribución
  7. dmidecode -q → mostrar los componentes (hardware) del sistema.
  8. hdparm -i /dev/hda → mostrar las características de un disco duro.
  9. hdparm -tT /dev/sda → realizar prueba de lectura en un disco duro.
  10. cat /proc/cpuinfo → mostrar información de la CPU.
  11. grep -c ^processor /proc/cpuinfo → mostrar número de procesadores.
  12. cat /proc/interrupts → mostrar las interrupciones.
  13. cat /proc/meminfo → verificar el uso de memoria.
  14. cat /proc/swaps → mostrar ficheros swap.
  15. cat /proc/version → mostrar la versión del kernel.
  16. cat /proc/net/dev → mostrar adaptadores de red y estadísticas.
  17. cat /proc/mounts → mostrar el sistema de ficheros montado.
  18. lscpu → mostrar información sobre el microprocesador.
  19. lspci -tv → mostrar los dispositivos PCI.
  20. lsusb -tv → mostrar los dispositivos USB.
  21. lshw → listar el hardware.
  22. discover → listar el hardware.
  23. date → mostrar la fecha del sistema.
  24. cal 2011 → mostrar el almanaque de 2011.
  25. cal 07 2011 → mostrar el almanaque para el mes julio de 2011.
  26. date 041217002011.00 → colocar (declarar, ajustar) fecha y hora.
  27. clock -w → guardar los cambios de fecha en la BIOS.
  28. blkid → mostrar información (nombre, etiqueta, UUID, tipo de partición) sobre los dispositivos de bloque (discos rígidos, etc.)

Apagar, reiniciar o cerrar sesión

  1. shutdown -h now → apagar el sistema (1).
  2. init 0 → apagar el sistema (2).
  3. telinit 0 → apagar el sistema (3).
  4. halt → apagar el sistema (4).
  5. poweroff → apagar sistema (5).
  6. shutdown -h hours:minutes & → apagado planificado del sistema.
  7. shutdown -c → cancelar un apagado planificado del sistema.
  8. shutdown -r now → reiniciar (1).
  9. reboot → reiniciar (2).
  10. logout → cerrar sesión.
  11. skill nombre_de_usuario → cerrar sesión (2)1)
  12. exit → salir del intérprete de comandos (si solo hay uno, equivale a cerrar sesión).

Gestionar archivos y directorios

  1. cd → ir al directorio personal.
  2. cd /home → cambiar al directorio “/home”.
  3. cd .. → retroceder un nivel.
  4. cd ../.. → retroceder 2 niveles.
  5. cd ~user1 → ir al directorio user1.
  6. cd - → ir (regresar) al directorio anterior.
  7. pwd → mostrar el camino del directorio actual.
  8. ls → listar el contenido de un directorio.
  9. ls -F → listar el contenido de un directorio (distinguiendo los directorios con una barra)
  10. ls -l → listar el contenido de un directorio, mostrando los detalles.
  11. ls -lh → listar el contenido de un directorio, mostrando los detalles (y el tamaño en un formato “humanizado”).
  12. ls -a → listar el contenido de un directorio, incluendo los ficheros ocultos.
  13. ls *[0-9] → listar los ficheros y carpetas que contienen números.
  14. ls -laR | less → listar recursivamente el contenido del directorio actual y todos los subdirectorios y archivos, incluyendo los ocultos, separados por página.
  15. tree → mostrar los ficheros y carpetas en forma de árbol comenzando por la raíz.(1)
  16. lstree → mostrar los ficheros y carpetas en forma de árbol comenzando por la raíz.(2)
  17. mkdir dir1 → crear un directorio de nombre ‘dir1’.
  18. mkdir dir1 dir2 → crear dos directorios a la vez (en la ubicación actual).
  19. mkdir -p /tmp/dir1/dir2 → crear una estructura de directorios, si no existe.
  20. rm file1 → eliminar el archivo ‘file1’.
  21. rm -f file1 → eliminar el archivo ‘file1’ en modo forzado.
  22. rmdir dir1 → borrar el directorio ‘dir1’.
  23. rm -rf dir1 → eliminar recursivamente y en modo forzado el directorio ‘dir1’ con todo lo que contenga.
  24. rm -rf dir1 dir2 → borrar dos directorios con su contenido de forma recursiva.
  25. mv dir1 new_dir → renombrar o mover un fichero o carpeta (directorio).
  26. cp file1 destino/ → copiar un fichero al destino elegido.
  27. cp file1 file2 destino/ → copiar a la vez dos ficheros a un mismo directorio.
  28. cp file1 file2 → copiar file1 en file2.
  29. cp dir /* . → copiar todos los ficheros de un directorio dentro del directorio de trabajo actual.
  30. cp -a /tmp/dir1 . → copiar un directorio dentro del directorio actual de trabajo.
  31. cp -a dir1 → copiar un directorio.
  32. cp -a dir1 dir2 → copiar dos directorio al unísono.
  33. ln -s file1 lnk1 → crear un enlace simbólico al fichero o directorio.
  34. ln file1 lnk1 → crear un enlace físico al fichero o directorio.
  35. touch file1 → actualizar la fecha de modificación de file1, o crearlo si no existe.
  36. touch -t 0712250000 file1 → modificar el tiempo real (tiempo de creación) de un fichero o directorio.
  37. file file1 → salida (volcado en pantalla) del tipo mime de un fichero texto.
  38. iconv -l → listas de cifrados conocidos.
  39. iconv -f fromEncoding -t toEncoding inputFile > outputFile → crea una nueva forma del fichero de entrada asumiendo que está codificado en fromEncoding y convirtiéndolo a ToEncoding.

Encontrar archivos

  1. find / -name file1 → buscar fichero y directorio a partir de la raíz del sistema.
  2. find / -user user1 → buscar ficheros y directorios pertenecientes al usuario “user1”.
  3. find /home/user1 -name \*.bin → buscar ficheros con extensión ”. bin” dentro del directorio / home/user1.
  4. find /usr/bin -type f -atime +100 → buscar ficheros binarios no usados en los últimos 100 días.
  5. find /usr/bin -type f -mtime -10 → buscar ficheros creados o cambiados dentro de los últimos 10 días.
  6. find / -name \*.rpm -exec chmod 755 '{}' \; → buscar ficheros con extensión ”.rpm” y modificar permisos.
  7. find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 644 → modificar recursivamente los permisos a todos los ficheros bajo el directorio actual.2)
  8. find / -xdev -name \*.rpm → Buscar ficheros con extensión ‘.rpm’ ignorando los dispositivos removibles como cdrom, pen-drive, etc.…
  9. find . -maxdepth 1 -name *.jpg -print -exec convert "{}" -resize 80×60 "thumbs/{}" \; → agrupar ficheros redimensionados en el directorio actual y enviarlos a directorios en vistas de miniaturas (requiere convertir desde Imagemagick).
  10. find /tmp/dir1 -depth -regextype posix-extended -regex '.*(\s+|:+|\\+|>+|<+|"+|\*+|\?+|\|+).*' -execdir rename 's/(\s+|:+|\\+|>+|<+|”+|\*+|\?+|\|+)/_/g' "{}" \; → renombrar recursivamente todos los directorios y ficheros bajo /tmp/dir1, cambiando los espacios y otros caracteres extraños por guiones bajos.
  11. locate \*.ps → encuentra ficheros con extensión ”.ps” ejecutados primeramente con el command updatedb.
  12. whereis halt → mostrar la ubicación de un fichero binario, de ayuda o fuente. En este caso pregunta dónde está el comando halt.
  13. which comando → mostrar la ruta completa a un comando.

Montando un sistema de ficheros

  1. mount /dev/hda2 /mnt/hda2 → montar un disco llamado hda2. Verifique primero la existencia del directorio ‘/ mnt/hda2’; si no está, debe crearlo.
  2. umount /dev/hda2 → desmontar un disco llamado hda2. (Antes es necesario salir del punto ‘/mnt/hda2’.
  3. fuser -km /mnt/hda2 → forzar el desmontaje cuando el dispositivo está ocupado.
  4. umount -n /mnt/hda2 → correr el desmontaje sin leer el fichero /etc/mtab. Útil cuando el fichero es de solo lectura o el disco duro está lleno.
  5. mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy → montar un disco flexible (floppy).
  6. mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom → montar un cdrom / dvdrom.
  7. mount /dev/hdc /mnt/cdrecorder → montar un cd regrabable o un dvdrom.
  8. mount /dev/hdb /mnt/cdrecorder → montar un cd regrabable / dvdrom (un dvd).
  9. mount -t udf,iso9660 -o loop file.iso /mnt/cdrom → montar un fichero de imagen de un medio óptico (como un CD o DVD en formato ISO).
  10. mount -t vfat /dev/hda5 /mnt/hda5 → montar un sistema de ficheros FAT32.
  11. mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/hda5 /mnt/hda5 → montar un sistema de ficheros NTFS.
  12. mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/usbdisk → montar un usb pen-drive o una memoria (sin especificar el tipo de sistema de ficheros).

Espacio en disco

  1. df -h → mostrar una lista de las particiones montadas.
  2. ls -lSr | more → mostrar el tamaño de los ficheros y directorios ordenados por tamaño.
  3. du -sh dir1 → Estimar el espacio usado por el directorio ‘dir1’.
  4. du -sk * | sort -nr → mostrar en orden descendente el tamaño de los ficheros y subdirectorios en la ubicación actual, en KiB.
  5. du -h --max-depth=1 | sort -nr → mostrar en orden descendente el tamaño de todos los subdirectorios en la ubicación actual, usando unidades de medida adaptables.
  6. du -k --max-depth=1 | sort -k1 -nr | awk '{printf "%.3f GiB\t%s\n", $1/(1048576), $2}' | less → mostrar en orden descendente el tamaño de los directorios y archivos, en GiB.
  7. rpm -q -a --qf '%10{SIZE}t%{NAME}n' | sort -k1,1n → mostrar el espacio usado por los paquetes rpm instalados organizados por tamaño (Fedora, Redhat y otros).
  8. dpkg-query -W -f='${Package}\t${Installed-Size}\n' | sort -k 2 -nr | grep -v deinstall | head -n 25 | awk '{printf "%.3f MB\t%s\n", $2/(1024), $1}‘ → mostrar (en Debian o derivadas) un listado con los 25 paquetes instalados que más espacio consumen (en orden descendente).

Usuarios y grupos

  1. groupadd nombre_del_grupo → crear un nuevo grupo.
  2. groupdel nombre_del_grupo → borrar un grupo.
  3. groupmod -n nuevo_nombre_del_grupo viejo_nombre_del_grupo → renombrar un grupo.
  4. adduser usuario1 → Crear un nuevo usuario, mediante un asistente.
  5. useradd -c "Nombre Apellido" -g admin -d /home/usuario1 -s /bin/bash usuario1 → Crear un nuevo usuario perteneciente al grupo “admin”.
  6. useradd usuario1 → crear un nuevo usuario.
  7. userdel -r usuario1 → borrar un usuario, eliminando su directorio Home.
  8. usermod -c "Usuario de FTP" -g system -d /ftp/usuario1 -s /sbin/nologin usuario1 → cambiar los atributos de un usuario.
  9. usermod -aG plugdev,dialout,pip user1 → agregar el usuario user1 a otros grupos existentes, para incrementar sus permisos (en este caso, agregar la posibilidad de conectar dispositivos, configurar y utilizar el modem)
  10. passwd → cambiar contraseña.
  11. passwd usuario1 → cambiar la contraseña de ‘usuario1’ (solamente ejecutable como superusuario).
  12. chage -E 2011-12-31 user1 → colocar un plazo para la contraseña del usuario. En este caso dice que la clave expira el 31 de diciembre de 2011.
  13. pwck → chequear la sintaxis correcta el formato de fichero de ‘/etc/passwd’ y la existencia de usuarios.
  14. grpck → chequear la sintaxis correcta y el formato del fichero ‘/etc/group’ y la existencia de grupos.
  15. newgrp grupo1 → registra a un nuevo grupo para cambiar el grupo predeterminado de los ficheros creados recientemente.

Permisos en ficheros (usar “+” para colocar permisos y “-” para eliminar)

  1. ls -lh → Mostrar permisos.
  2. ls /tmp | pr -T5 -W$COLUMNS → dividir la terminal en 5 columnas.
  3. chmod ugo+rwx directory1 → colocar permisos de lectura ®, escritura (w) y ejecución(x) al propietario (u), al grupo (g) y a otros (o) sobre el directorio ‘directory1’.
  4. chmod go-rwx directory1 → quitar permiso de lectura ®, escritura (w) y (x) ejecución al grupo (g) y otros (o) sobre el directorio ‘directory1’.
  5. chown user1 file1 → cambiar el dueño de un fichero.
  6. chown -R user1 directory1 → cambiar el propietario de un directorio y de todos los ficheros y directorios contenidos dentro.
  7. chgrp group1 file1 → cambiar grupo de ficheros.
  8. chown user1:group1 file1 → cambiar usuario y el grupo propietario de un fichero.
  9. find / -perm -u+s → visualizar todos los ficheros del sistema con SUID configurado.
  10. chmod u+s /bin/file1 → colocar el bit SUID en un fichero binario. El usuario que corriendo ese fichero adquiere los mismos privilegios como dueño.
  11. chmod u-s /bin/file1 → deshabilitar el bit SUID en un fichero binario.
  12. chmod g+s /home/public → colocar un bit SGID en un directorio –similar al SUID pero por directorio.
  13. chmod g-s /home/public → desabilitar un bit SGID en un directorio.
  14. chmod o+t /home/public → colocar un bit STIKY en un directorio. Permite el borrado de ficheros solamente a los dueños legítimos.
  15. chmod o-t /home/public → desabilitar un bit STIKY en un directorio.

Atributos especiales en ficheros (usar “+” para colocar permisos y “-” para eliminar)

  1. chattr +a file1 → permite escribir abriendo un fichero solamente modo append.
  2. chattr +c file1 → permite que un fichero sea comprimido / descomprimido automaticamente.
  3. chattr +d file1 → asegura que el programa ignore borrar los ficheros durante la copia de seguridad.
  4. chattr +i file1 → convierte el fichero en inmutable o invariable, por lo que no puede ser eliminado, alterado, renombrado, ni enlazado.
  5. chattr +s file1 → permite que un fichero sea borrado de forma segura.
  6. chattr +S file1 → asegura que un fichero sea modificado, los cambios son escritos en modo synchronous como con sync.
  7. chattr +u file1 → te permite recuperar el contenido de un fichero aún si este está cancelado.
  8. lsattr → mostrar atributos especiales.

Archivos y ficheros comprimidos

  1. 7za a -mx=9 -ms=on -mhe=on -p archivocomprimido directorio1 archivo1 archivo2 → comprimir un directorio y dos archivos en formato 7zip, con compresión sólida máxima, y protección por contraseña (la extensión 7z se agrega automáticamente).
  2. 7za x archivocomprimido.7z → extraer un archivo comprimido en 7zip (7zip también permite descomprimir otros formatos, como por ejemplo, zip).
  3. bunzip2 file1.bz2 → descomprime in fichero llamado ‘file1.bz2’.
  4. bzip2 file1 → comprime un fichero llamado ‘file1’.
  5. gunzip file1.gz → descomprime un fichero llamado ‘file1.gz’.
  6. gzip file1 → comprime un fichero llamado ‘file1’.
  7. gzip -9 file1 → comprime con compresión máxima.
  8. rar a file1.rar test_file → crear un fichero rar llamado ‘file1.rar’.
  9. rar a file1.rar file1 file2 dir1 → comprimir ‘file1’, ‘file2’ y ‘dir1’ simultáneamente.
  10. rar x file1.rar → descomprimir archivo rar.
  11. unrar x file1.rar → descomprimir archivo rar.
  12. tar -cvf archive.tar file1 → crear un tarball descomprimido.
  13. tar -cvf archive.tar file1 file2 dir1 → crear un archivo conteniendo ‘file1’, ‘file2′ y’dir1’.
  14. tar -tf archive.tar → mostrar los contenidos de un archivo.
  15. tar -xvf archive.tar → extraer un tarball (si el archivo además está comprimido con gzip, bzip2 o xz, descomprimirlo automáticamente).
  16. tar -xvf archive.tar -C /tmp → extraer un tarball en /tmp.
  17. tar -cjvf archive.tar.bz2 dir1 → crear un tarball comprimido en bzip2.
  18. tar -xjvf archive.tar.bz2 → descomprimir un archivo tar comprimido en bzip2
  19. tar -cJvf archive.tar.xz dir1 → crear un tarball comprimido en xz.
  20. XZ_OPT=-9e tar -cJvf archive.tar.xz dir1 → crear un tarball comprimido en xz (con máxima compresión).
  21. tar -xJvf archive.tar.xz → descomprimir un archivo tar comprimido en xz.
  22. tar -czvf archive.tar.gz dir1 → crear un tarball comprimido en gzip.
  23. tar -I pigz -cf archive.tar.gz dir1 → crear un tarball comprimido en gzip, pero utilizando pigz, que comprime en paralelo aprovechando todos los núcleos de los microprocesadores del equipo.
  24. GZIP=-9 tar -czvf archive.tar.gz dir1 → crear un tarball comprimido en gzip (con máxima compresión).
  25. tar -xzvf archive.tar.gz → descomprimir un archive tar comprimido en gzip.
  26. zip file1.zip file1 → crear un archivo comprimido en zip.
  27. zip -r file1.zip file1 file2 dir1 → comprimir, en zip, varios archivos y directorios de forma simultánea.
  28. unzip file1.zip → descomprimir un archivo zip.

Paquetes rpm (Red Hat, Fedora y similares)

  1. rpm -ivh package.rpm → instalar un paquete rpm.
  2. rpm -ivh --nodeeps package.rpm → instalar un paquete rpm ignorando las peticiones de dependencias.
  3. rpm -U package.rpm → actualizar un paquete rpm sin cambiar la configuración de los ficheros.
  4. rpm -F package.rpm → actualizar un paquete rpm solamente si este está instalado.
  5. rpm -e package_name.rpm → eliminar un paquete rpm.
  6. rpm -qa → mostrar todos los paquetes rpm instalados en el sistema.
  7. rpm -qa | grep httpd → mostrar todos los paquetes rpm con el nombre “httpd”.
  8. rpm -qi package_name → obtener información en un paquete específico instalado.
  9. rpm -qg "System Environment/Daemons" → mostar los paquetes rpm de un grupo software.
  10. rpm -ql package_name → mostrar lista de ficheros dados por un paquete rpm instalado.
  11. rpm -qc package_name → mostrar lista de configuración de ficheros dados por un paquete rpm instalado.
  12. rpm -q package_name --whatrequires → mostrar lista de dependencias solicitada para un paquete rpm.
  13. rpm -q package_name --whatprovides → mostar la capacidad dada por un paquete rpm.
  14. rpm -q package_name --scripts → mostrar los scripts comenzados durante la instalación /eliminación.
  15. rpm -q package_name --changelog → mostar el historial de revisions de un paquete rpm.
  16. rpm -qf /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf → verificar cuál paquete rpm pertenece a un fichero dado.
  17. rpm -qp package.rpm -l → mostrar lista de ficheros dados por un paquete rpm que aún no ha sido instalado.
  18. rpm --import /media/cdrom/RPM-GPG-KEY → importar la firma digital de la llave pública.
  19. rpm --checksig package.rpm → verificar la integridad de un paquete rpm.
  20. rpm -qa gpg-pubkey → verificar la integridad de todos los paquetes rpm instalados.
  21. rpm -V package_name → chequear el tamaño del fichero, licencias, tipos, dueño, grupo, chequeo de resumen de MD5 y última modificación.
  22. rpm -Va → chequear todos los paquetes rpm instalados en el sistema. Usar con cuidado.
  23. rpm -Vp package.rpm → verificar un paquete rpm no instalado todavía.
  24. rpm2cpio package.rpm | cpio --extract --make-directories *bin → extraer fichero ejecutable desde un paquete rpm.
  25. rpm -ivh /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/`arch`/package.rpm → instalar un paquete construido desde una fuente rpm.
  26. rpmbuild --rebuild package_name.src.rpm → construir un paquete rpm desde una fuente rpm.

Actualizador de paquetes yum (Fedora, Redhat y otros)

  1. yum install package_name → descargar e instalar un paquete rpm.
  2. yum localinstall package_name.rpm → este instalará un RPM y tratará de resolver todas las dependencies para ti, usando tus repositorios.
  3. yum update → actualizar todos los paquetes rpm instalados en el sistema.
  4. yum update package_name → modernizar / actualizar un paquete rpm.
  5. yum remove package_name → eliminar un paquete rpm.
  6. yum list → listar todos los paquetes instalados en el sistema.
  7. yum search package_name → Encontrar un paquete en repositorio rpm.
  8. yum clean packages → limpiar un caché rpm borrando los paquetes descargados.
  9. yum clean headers → eliminar todos los ficheros de encabezamiento que el sistema usa para resolver la dependencia.
  10. yum clean all → eliminar desde los paquetes caché y ficheros de encabezado.

Gestión de paquetes deb (Debian, Ubuntu y otros)

  1. dpkg -i elpaquete.deb → instalar / actualizar un paquete.
  2. dpkg -r elpaquete → eliminar un paquete deb del sistema.
  3. dpkg -l → mostrar todos los paquetes deb instalados en el sistema.
  4. dpkg -l | grep httpd → mostrar todos los paquetes deb con el nombre “httpd”
  5. dpkg -s elpaquete → obtener información en un paquete específico instalado en el sistema.
  6. dpkg -L elpaquete → mostar lista de ficheros utilizados por un paquete instalado en el sistema.
  7. dpkg -c elpaquete.deb → mostrar contenido de un paquete (no necesariamente instalado).
  8. dpkg -S /bin/ping → verificar a qué paquete pertenece un fichero dado.

Actualizador de paquetes apt y aptitude (Debian, Ubuntu y otros)

  1. apt-get install package_name → instalar / actualizar un paquete deb.
  2. apt-cdrom install package_name → instalar / actualizar un paquete deb desde un cdrom.
  3. apt-get update → actualizar la lista de paquetes.
  4. apt-get upgrade → actualizar todos los paquetes instalados.
  5. apt-get remove package_name → eliminar un paquete deb del sistema.
  6. apt-get check → verificar la correcta resolución de las dependencias.
  7. apt-get clean → limpiar cache desde los paquetes descargados.
  8. apt-cache search searched-package → retorna lista de paquetes que corresponde a la serie «paquetes buscados».
  9. aptitude search paquete → busca un paquete por el nombre.
  10. aptitude search ~dpaquete → busca un paquete por la descripción.
  11. aptitude show paquete | less → muestra información sobre un paquete.
  12. aptitude install paquete1 paquete2 … → instala varios paquetes con sus dependencias y recomendaciones.
  13. aptitude -R install paquete → instala un paquete con sus dependencias, pero sin las recomendaciones.
  14. aptitude why paquete → lista las razones por las que se debería instalar el paquete.
  15. aptitude why-not paquete → lista las razones por las que no se puede instalar el paquete.
  16. aptitude -rsvW install paquete → simula la instalación de un paquete con sus dependencias y recomendaciones, detallando cada una.
  17. aptitude remove paquete → desinstala un paquete.
  18. aptitude purge paquete → desinstala un paquete y lo limpia de la cache.
  19. aptitude clean → limpia la cache de paquetes.
  20. apt-file -xi search 'sql‘ → busca todos los paquetes que contengan un archivo o directorio con la expresión sql (sin considerar mayúsculas o minúsculas).3)

Ver el contenido de un fichero

  1. cat file1 → ver los contenidos de un fichero comenzando desde la primera línea.
  2. tac file1 → ver los contenidos de un fichero comenzando desde la última línea.
  3. more file1 → ver el contenido de un fichero de manera paginada.
  4. less file1 → parecido al commando ‘more’ pero permite avanzar, retroceder, y buscar (compatible con algunos comandos de vi).
  5. head -2 file1 → ver las dos primeras líneas de un fichero (ó 10, si no se especifica la cantidad de líneas).
  6. tail -2 file1 → ver las dos últimas líneas de un fichero (ó 10, si no se especifica la cantidad de líneas).

Manipulación de texto

  1. cat file1 file2 … | command <> file1_in.txt_or_file1_out.txt → sintaxis general para la manipulación de texto utilizando PIPE, STDIN y STDOUT.
  2. cat file1 | command( sed, grep, awk, grep, etc…) > result.txt → sintaxis general para manipular un texto de un fichero y escribir el resultado en un fichero nuevo.
  3. cat file1 | command( sed, grep, awk, grep, etc…) >> result.txt → sintaxis general para manipular un texto de un fichero y añadir resultado en un fichero existente.
  4. grep Aug /var/log/messages → buscar palabras “Aug” en el fichero ‘/var/log/messages’.
  5. grep ^Aug /var/log/messages → buscar palabras que comienzan con “Aug” en fichero ‘/var/log/messages’
  6. grep [0-9] /var/log/messages → seleccionar todas las líneas del fichero ‘/var/log/messages’ que contienen números.
  7. grep Aug -R /var/log/ → buscar la cadena “Aug” en el directorio ‘/var/log’ y debajo.
  8. sed 's/string1/string2/g' ejemplo.txt → reemplazar en ejemplo.txt todas las ocurrencias de “string1” con “string2”
  9. sed '/^$/d' ejemplo.txt → eliminar todas las líneas en blanco desde el ejemplo.txt
  10. sed '/ *#/d; /^$/d' ejemplo.txt → eliminar comentarios y líneas en blanco de ejemplo.txt
  11. echo 'ejemplo' | tr '[:lower:]' '[:upper:]‘ → convertir “ejemplo” de minúsculas a mayúsculas.
  12. sed -e '1d' ejemplo.txt → elimina la primera línea del fichero ejemplo.txt
  13. sed -n '/string1/p‘ → visualizar solamente las líneas que contienen la palabra “string1”.
  14. sed -r 's/(cadena1)(cadena2)/\2\1/g‘ → utilizar expresiones regulares extendidas para intercambiar el orden de dos cadenas de texto, en todas las instancias que aparezcan.

Establecer caracter y conversión de ficheros

  1. dos2unix filedos.txt fileunix.txt → convertir un formato de fichero texto desde MSDOS a UNIX.
  2. unix2dos fileunix.txt filedos.txt → convertir un formato de fichero de texto desde UNIX a MSDOS.
  3. recode ..HTML < page.txt > page.html → convertir un fichero de texto en html.
  4. recode -l | more → mostrar todas las conversiones de formato disponibles.

Análisis del sistema de ficheros

  1. badblocks -v /dev/hda1 → Chequear los bloques defectuosos en el disco hda1.
  2. fsck /dev/hda1 → reparar / chequear la integridad del fichero del sistema Linux en el disco hda1.
  3. fsck.ext2 /dev/hda1 → reparar / chequear la integridad del fichero del sistema ext 2 en el disco hda1.
  4. e2fsck /dev/hda1 → reparar / chequear la integridad del fichero del sistema ext 2 en el disco hda1.
  5. e2fsck -j /dev/hda1 → reparar / chequear la integridad del fichero del sistema ext 3 en el disco hda1.
  6. fsck.ext3 /dev/hda1 → reparar / chequear la integridad del fichero del sistema ext 3 en el disco hda1.
  7. fsck.vfat /dev/hda1 → reparar / chequear la integridad del fichero sistema fat en el disco hda1.
  8. fsck.msdos /dev/hda1 → reparar / chequear la integridad de un fichero del sistema dos en el disco hda1.
  9. dosfsck /dev/hda1 → reparar / chequear la integridad de un fichero del sistema dos en el disco hda1.

Formatear un sistema de ficheros

  1. mkfs /dev/hda1 → crear un fichero de sistema tipo Linux en la partición hda1.
  2. mke2fs /dev/hda1 → crear un fichero de sistema tipo Linux ext 2 en hda1.
  3. mke2fs -j /dev/hda1 → crear un fichero de sistema tipo Linux ext3 (periódico) en la partición hda1.
  4. mkfs -t vfat 32 -F /dev/hda1 → crear un fichero de sistema FAT32 en hda1.
  5. fdformat -n /dev/fd0 → formatear un disco flooply.
  6. mkswap /dev/hda3 → crear un fichero de sistema swap.

Partición de sistema swap

  1. mkswap /dev/hda3 → crear fichero de sistema swap.
  2. swapon /dev/hda3 → activando una nueva partición swap.
  3. swapon /dev/hda2 /dev/hdb3 → activar dos particiones swap.

Salvas

  1. dump -0aj -f /tmp/home0.bak /home → hacer una salva completa del directorio ‘/home’.
  2. dump -1aj -f /tmp/home0.bak /home → hacer una salva incremental del directorio ‘/home’.
  3. restore -if /tmp/home0.bak → restaurando una salva interactivamente.
  4. rsync -rogpav --delete /home /tmp → sincronización entre directorios.
  5. rsync -rogpav -e ssh --delete /home ip_address:/tmp → rsync a través del túnel SSH.
  6. rsync -az -e ssh --delete ip_addr:/home/public /home/local → sincronizar un directorio local con un directorio remoto a través de ssh y de compresión.
  7. rsync -az -e ssh --delete /home/local ip_addr:/home/public → sincronizar un directorio remoto con un directorio local a través de ssh y de compresión.
  8. dd bs=1M if=/dev/hda | gzip | ssh user@ip_addr 'dd of=hda.gz‘ → hacer una salva de un disco duro en un host remoto a través de ssh.
  9. dd if=/dev/sda of=/tmp/file1 → salvar el contenido de un disco duro a un fichero. (En este caso el disco duro es “sda” y el fichero “file1”).
  10. tar -Puf backup.tar /home/user → hacer una salva incremental del directorio ‘/home/user’.
  11. tar -czv --exclude=/root/dir1/* -f /var/salvas/cfg_$(date +%F_%H%M).tgz /etc /root → salvar los directorios /etc y /root (excluyendo el contenido del subdirectorio /root/dir1/) en un archivo comprimido, cuyo nombre contenga la fecha y hora actual.
  12. ( cd /tmp/local/ && tar c . ) | ssh -C user@ip_addr 'cd /home/share/ && tar x -p‘ → copiar el contenido de un directorio en un directorio remoto a través de ssh.
  13. ( tar c /home ) | ssh -C user@ip_addr 'cd /home/backup-home && tar x -p‘ → copiar un directorio local en un directorio remoto a través de ssh.
  14. tar cf - . | (cd /tmp/backup ; tar xf - ) → copia local conservando las licencias y enlaces desde un directorio a otro.
  15. find /home/user1 -name '*.txt' | xargs cp -av --target-directory=/home/backup/ --parents → encontrar y copiar todos los ficheros con extensión ‘.txt’ de un directorio a otro.
  16. find ~/ -type f -not -iname '*.mp*' -not \( -iregex '.*\.mozilla/.*' -o -iregex '.*\.thumbnails/.*' \) -prune -mtime 14 -print0 | xargs -0 tar -czf /var/salvas/myhome.tgz → realizar una salva de todos los archivos de nuestro perfil de usuario modificados dentro de los últimos 14 días, exceptuando los archivos mp3, mpg y similares, y los directorios .mozilla/ y .thumbnails/.
  17. find /var/log -name '*.log' | tar cv --files-from=- | bzip2 > log.tar.bz2 → encontrar todos los ficheros con extensión ‘.log’ y hacer un archivo bzip.
  18. dd if=/dev/hda of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1 → hacer una copia del MRB (Master Boot Record) a un disco floppy.
  19. dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/dev/hda bs=512 count=1 → restaurar la copia del MBR (Master Boot Record) salvada en un floppy.

CDROM

  1. cdrecord -v gracetime=2 dev=/dev/cdrom -eject blank=fast -force → limpiar o borrar un cd regrabable.
  2. mkisofs /dev/cdrom > cd.iso → crear una imagen iso de cdrom en disco.
  3. mkisofs /dev/cdrom | gzip > cd_iso.gz → crear una imagen comprimida iso de cdrom en disco.
  4. mkisofs -J -allow-leading-dots -R -V “Label CD” -iso-level 4 -o ./cd.iso data_cd → crear una imagen iso de un directorio.
  5. cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom cd.iso → quemar una imagen iso.
  6. gzip -dc cd_iso.gz | cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom - → quemar una imagen iso comprimida.
  7. mount -t udf,iso9660 -o loop cd.iso /mnt/iso → montar una imagen iso.
  8. cd-paranoia -B → llevar canciones de un cd a ficheros wav.
  9. cd-paranoia -- ”-3” → llevar las 3 primeras canciones de un cd a ficheros wav.
  10. cdrecord --scanbus → escanear bus para identificar el canal scsi.
  11. dd if=/dev/hdc | md5sum → hacer funcionar un md5sum en un dispositivo, como un CD.
  12. eject -v → expulsar un medio o disco extraíble, ofreciendo información adicional.

Trabajo con la red (LAN Y WIFI)

  1. ifconfig eth0 → mostrar la configuración de una interfaz de red Ethernet.
  2. ifup eth0 → activar la interfaz eth0.
  3. ifdown eth0 → deshabilitar la interfaz eth0.
  4. ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 → configurar una dirección IP.
  5. ifconfig eth0 promisc → configurar eth0 en modo promiscuo para obtener los paquetes (sniffing).
  6. dhclient eth0 → activar la interface ‘eth0’ en modo dhcp.
  7. route -n → mostrar tabla de rutas.
  8. route add -net 0/0 gw IP_Gateway → configurar entrada predeterminada.
  9. ip route show | grep default | awk {'print $3'} → conocer la puerta de enlace predeterminada.
  10. route add -net 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 192.168.1.1 → configurar ruta estática para buscar la red 192.168.0.0/16.
  11. route del 0/0 gw IP_gateway → eliminar la ruta estática.
  12. echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward → activar el redireccionamiento de paquetes ip.
  13. hostname → mostrar el nombre del host del sistema.
  14. host www.example.com → buscar el nombre del host para resolver el nombre a una dirección ip (1).
  15. nslookup www.example.com → buscar el nombre del host para resolver el nombre a una direccióm ip y viceversa (2).
  16. ip link show → mostar el estado de enlace de todas las interfaces.
  17. mii-tool eth0 → mostar el estado de enlace de eth0.
  18. ethtool eth0 → mostrar las estadísticas de la interfaz de red eth0.
  19. netstat -tup → mostrar todas las conexiones de red activas y sus PID.
  20. netstat -tupl → mostrar todos los servicios de escucha de red en el sistema y sus PID.
  21. netstat -punta → mostrar todas las conexiones activas por dirección IP y puerto.
  22. tcpdump tcp port 80 → mostrar todo el tráfico HTTP.
  23. iwlist scan → mostrar las redes inalámbricas.
  24. iwconfig eth1 → mostrar la configuración de una interfaz de red inalámbrica.
  25. whois www.example.com → buscar en base de datos Whois.
  26. iftop -nNP -i eth0 → mostrar en tiempo real las conexiones abiertas en eth0 y su tasa de transferencia.
  27. sockstat → mostrar información sobre las conexiones abiertas.
  28. arp-scan -l → descubrir en la red las direcciones IP y MAC.
  29. nm-tool → muestra configuración de red (en caso de usar Network Manager obtiene los DNS).

Redes de Microsoft Windows (Samba)

  1. nbtscan ip_addr → resolución de nombre de red bios.
  2. nmblookup -A ip_addr → resolución de nombre de red bios.
  3. smbclient -L ip_addr/hostname → mostrar acciones remotas de un host en windows.

Cortafuegos (iptables)

  1. iptables -t filter -L → mostrar todas las cadenas de la tabla de filtro.
  2. iptables -t nat -L → mostrar todas las cadenas de la tabla nat.
  3. iptables -t filter -F → limpiar todas las reglas de la tabla de filtro.
  4. iptables -t nat -F → limpiar todas las reglas de la tabla nat.
  5. iptables -t filter -X → borrar cualquier cadena creada por el usuario.
  6. iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp --dport telnet -j ACCEPT → permitir las conexiones telnet para entar.
  7. iptables -t filter -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport http -j DROP → bloquear las conexiones HTTP para salir.
  8. iptables -t filter -A FORWARD -p tcp --dport pop3 -j ACCEPT → permitir las conexiones POP a una cadena delantera.
  9. iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 80,443,8080 -m state --state NEW -m limit --limit 4/sec --limit-burst 8 -j ACCEPT → establecer un límite de 4 peticiones por segundo de nuevas conexiones, con posibles ráfagas ocasionales (útil para políticas de denegación por defecto).
  10. iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 80,443,8080 -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -m connlimit ! --conlimit-above 6 -j ACCEPT → establecer un límite de 6 conexiones simultáneas por equipo a nuestro servidor web (útil para políticas de denegación por defecto).
  11. iptables -t filter -A INPUT -j LOG --log-prefix “DROP INPUT” → registrando una cadena de entrada.
  12. iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE → configurar un PAT (Puerto de traducción de dirección) en eth0, ocultando los paquetes de salida forzada. (Indicado para enlaces tipo ppp)
  13. iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.0.127 -o eth0 -j SNAT --to-source 169.158.158.169 → enrutar los paquetes desde 192.168.0.127 hacia otras redes por eth0 y asignarles un dirección ip externa. (Indicado para enlaces tipo ADSL)
  14. iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -d 192.168.0.1 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -j DNAT --to-destination 10.0.0.2:22 → redireccionar los paquetes diriguidos de un host a otro.
  15. iptables -t nat -S → Listar todas las reglas activas en la tabla nat.
  16. iptables-save -c > archivo → Salvar las reglas en un archivo (incluyendo los contadores de paquetes y bytes).
  17. iptables-restore -c < archivo → Restaurar las reglas desde un archivo (incluyendo los contadores de paquetes y bytes).

Monitoreando y depurando

  1. top → mostrar en tiempo real las tareas de linux.
  2. htop → mostrar y gestionar las tareas con una interfaz amistosa.
  3. ps -eafw → muestra las tareas Linux.
  4. ps -e -o pid,args --forest → muestra las tareas Linux en un modo jerárquico.
  5. ps -o pid,cmd -ww -C wget → listar todas las instancias del comando wget con sus argumentos.
  6. pstree → mostrar un árbol sistema de procesos.
  7. pidof pppd → mostrar el pid del proceso pppd.
  8. kill -9 ID_Processo → forzar el cierre de un proceso y terminarlo.
  9. kill -1 ID_Processo → forzar un proceso para recargar la configuración.
  10. killall Nombre_Proceso → terminar un proceso por el nombre del comando y no por el ID.
  11. kill -HUP $(ps -A -o state,pid --no-header | grep -e '^[Zz]' | awk '{print $2}' | xargs) → terminar todos los procesos zombies.
  12. lsof -p $$ → mostrar una lista de ficheros abiertos por procesos.
  13. lsof /home/user1 → muestra una lista de ficheros abiertos en un camino dado del sistema.
  14. strace -c ls >/dev/null → mostrar las llamadas del sistema hechas y recibidas por un proceso.
  15. strace -f -e open ls >/dev/null → mostrar las llamadas a la biblioteca.
  16. watch -n1 'cat /proc/interrupts‘ → mostrar interrupciones en tiempo real.
  17. last reboot → mostrar historial de reinicio.
  18. lsmod → mostrar los módulos del kernel cargados.
  19. free -m → muestra el estado de la RAM en megabytes.
  20. smartctl -A /dev/hda → monitorear la fiabilidad de un disco duro a través de SMART.
  21. smartctl -i /dev/hda → chequear si SMART está activado en un disco duro.
  22. tail -f /var/log/dmesg → mostrar eventos inherentes al proceso de carga del kernel.
  23. tail -f /var/log/messages → mostrar los eventos del sistema.
  24. multitail --follow-all /var/log/{dmesg,messages} → mostrar dos registros de eventos en una misma pantalla.

Seguridad y Cifrado

  1. base64 /home/archivo > /home/archivo-codificado → codifica “archivo” en ‘base64’ y lo guarda en /home
  2. base64 -d /home/archivo-codificado > /home/archivo → decodifica “archivo-codificado” y lo guarda en /home
  3. openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 3650 -newkey rsa:1024 -out /etc/millave.crt -keyout /etc/millave.key → crea un certificado auto-firmado para cifrar el tráfico web con SSL.
  4. htpasswd -c -m /etc/apache2/.htpasswd nombreusuario → genera un archivo ‘.htpasswd’ para proteger un sitio web con auntenticación.

Otros comandos útiles

  1. apropos palabraclave → mostrar una lista de comandos que pertenecen a las palabras claves de un programa; son útiles cuando tú sabes qué hace tu programa, pero desconoces el nombre del comando.
  2. man ping → mostrar las páginas del manual on-line; por ejemplo, en un comando ping, usar la opción ‘-k’ para encontrar cualquier comando relacionado.
  3. man -t ping | ps2pdf - ping.pdf → convertir las páginas del manual del comando ping en un archivo pdf (para lo cual es necesario haber instalado Ghostscript).
  4. mkbootdisk --device /dev/fd0 `uname -r` → crear un floppy boteable.
  5. gpg -c file1 → codificar un fichero con guardia de seguridad GNU.
  6. gpg file1.gpg → decodificar un fichero con Guardia de seguridad GNU.
  7. wget -r www.example.com → descargar un sitio web completo.
  8. wget -c www.example.com/file.iso → descargar un fichero con la posibilidad de parar la descargar y reanudar más tarde.
  9. echo 'wget -c www.example.com/files.iso' | at 09:00 → Comenzar una descarga a cualquier hora. En este caso empezaría a las 9 horas.
  10. ldd /usr/bin/ssh → mostrar las bibliotecas compartidas requeridas por el programa ssh.
  11. alias hh='history‘ → colocar un alias para un commando. En este caso, para invocar el historial con hh.
  12. chsh → cambiar el comando Shell.
  13. chsh --list-shells → es un comando adecuado para saber si tienes que hacer remoto en otra terminal.
  14. who -a → mostrar quien está registrado, e imprimir hora del último sistema de importación, procesos muertos, procesos de registro de sistema, procesos activos producidos por init, funcionamiento actual y últimos cambios del reloj del sistema.
  15. echo "128*1024*1024" | bc → calcular desde la consola el tamaño en bytes de 128 MiB.
  16. sudo !! → ejecutar como superusuario el último comando tecleado.
  17. clear → limpiar la pantalla.
  18. uncomando > archivodesalida.txt 2>&1 → ejecuta un comando y redirige la salida a un archivo, combinando en este tanto STDOUT como STDERR.
  19. uncomando > archivodesalida.txt 2> archivoerrores.txt → ejecuta un comando, redirige la salida (STDOUT) a un archivo, y los errores (STDERR) a otro.
  20. uncomando | tee archivodesalida.txt → ejecuta un comando, muestra la salida en la pantalla y simultáneamente la escribe a un archivo.

 

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